Queensland Herbarium., Queensland, Australia: http://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/specimens/, CABI, Undated. Approximately 90% of PAR is excluded by populations of V. rotundifolia as opposed to 20-40% of PAR by stands of sea oats (Uniola paniculata) a native grass which can be crowded out by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006; Cousins et al., 2010a). [36] The physical dormancy mechanism is believed to be inforced at least in part by cuticular alkanes that prevent water penetration. [35] Due to this wide range of visitors, it is unlikely the plant would require a specialist insect to mediate successful pollination. Blades are cupped downward slightly. Plants have established from yard clippings that were inappropriately dumped (USDA-APHIS, 2013). A taxonomic revision of the genus Vitex L (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Impacting on piping plover and sea turtle nesting habitat. BO, 2016. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. A thick water repellent cuticle on fruits helps aid dispersal by ocean currents. simplicifolia. This treatment procedure is repeated until zero regrowth is observed. Common names include "chaste tree" or "chastetree", traditionally referring to V. agnus-castus but often applied to other species as well. There were large genetic differences between populations, indicating there is limited gene flow between populations. Occludes photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from reaching the sand surface. International Immunology, 25(3):197-205. If available other names are mentioned here. These cultivars have undergone successful trials at Longwood Gardens. Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Hai Distr., Vinh Hai Municipality, Vill. Georgia Invasive Species Strategy. Photo by Matthew Gaston. [30][31] The plant has also been observed in southern India. Population genetic structure of the medicinal plant, http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/publications/pdf/tr60.pdf, Kobayakawa J; Sato-Nishimori F; Moriyasu M; Matsukawa Y, 2004. Common Name(s): roundleaf chastetree [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met [11] Subsequent cpDNA analysis,[12] rbcL sequence analysis,[13] chemotaxonomic studies,[14][15] and morphological analyses [16] have supported the original logic for family reorganization. Viable seeds have been found in the soil for 1.5-4 years (Cousins et al., 2010b). Vitex rotundifolia is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. [2], Genetic diversity within populations has been found to be much lower than the average for most woody plants. V. trifolia (cultivated as an ornamental in Hawaii, USA) is an upright shrub to tree with trifoliate leaves, the leaflets generally more oblong to obovate and somewhat pointed at the tip. C. Linnaeus Jr. described V. rotundifolia based on type material from Japan. beach vitex in English chasteberry in language. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States., http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/, ISSG, 2016. Species on this page ( A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms) : Vitex agnus-castus L.; Vitex arborea Desf. Gainesville, Florida, USA. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as beach vitex, is a low, woody, perennial shrub with branches that can run for many meters. A taxonomic revision of the genus Vitex L (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Compendium record. [6][17] Previous researchers have placed V. rotundifolia within V. trifolia. Please use https://www.cabi.org/ISC for full site. These uses generally parallel those of Vitex agnus-castus. Induces hydrophobicity in the sand substrate due to accumulated deposits of cuticular alkanes deposited from overlying leaves and fruits (Cousins et al., 2009). Sea-beach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus) is a US Federally Threatened plant species that can be outcompeted by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006). It is currently on the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council’s list of invasive plants (FLEPPC, 2015). obovata: Common Name: Round-Leaved Chaste Tree, Single-Leaf Chastetree: ... Common Names: Classifications and Characteristics. [38] Additionally, the divergence between populations was found to be higher. Social Circle, Georgia, USA: Wildlife Resources Division. In 2008, Hu et al. to avoid collecting from clonal material with identical genotypes (Hu et al., 2008). Development of microsatellite markers for Vitex rotundifolia (Verbenaceae), an endangered coastal plant in Lake Biwa, Japan. Endosperm is absent. Lee S; Lee Y; Kim Y; Kim J; Kang D; Lee H, 2012. The placement of Corner was subsequently supported by several authors: Fosberg (1962),[19] Munir (1987),[2] and Wagner (1999).[3]. It has been introduced into … Growing characteristics and propagation of Vitex rotundifolia for development of rehabilitation plant in seaboard area. In Hawaii, USA, V. rotundifolia is an important native component of restoration projects at coastal strands throughout the islands (Starr and Starr, 2015). http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/, ISSG, 2016. Significant variations have been observed with regard to genotype and chemotype of various beach vitex samples collected from across China. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, xiv+666 pp. Genotypic and chemotypic variations were closely associated. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide, Invasive Species Compendium smart searches are based on commonly researched topics, and your own requests. [45] A total of 187 species were examined. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. [33], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Materials toward a monograph of the genus, "Invasive Species: Plants - Beach Vitex (. The plant was observed by Munir from Northern and Western Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Hawaii, Malaya, Philippines, and Hong Kong. (2007), V. rotundifolia has been protected as a Threatened species in Shiga Prefecture of Honshu, Japan, and was also included in the List of the Important Wild Plants for Conservation in China in 1989. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 2015 list of invasive plant species, 4 pp. This is understandable due to the limited ecological niche beach vitex inhabits. Populations on the Gulf of Mexico shorelines of northwestern Florida and Southern Alabama are among the more recent disjunct occurrences. Running horizontal stems produce frequent upright branches. The round leaves are gray-green to silvery and 1 to … It is native to Asia, including China and Japan, and also to Oceania, including Australia and Papua New Guinea. Stem. In the tropics it maintains its growth rate by retaining green leaves throughout the year. Invasive Plant Science and Management. Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex, Pohinahina); colonizing habit. [29], This plant's natural range includes much of the Pacific Rim and many of the Pacific islands. Molokai: Papohaku, Kaula ili, The style extends beyond the stamens (total length: 12 mm). Native To: Coastal ranges from India to Korea to Hawaii to … V. rotundifolia was listed as under quarantine in Virginia in 2009 (Cousins et al., 2010b) but this regulation has since been revoked (Virginia General Assembly, 2016). Gulf coast: Santa Rosa Co., Santa Rosa Isl., Gulf Breeze Peninsula, Oahu: Koko Crater, Mokulua simplicifolia Cham. China, Japan, and India. Missouri, USA. Present coverage is estimated at 0.04% of total land mass, yet modeling predictions based on occurrence and bioclimatic data suggest a future coverage increase to 3.66% in (Thalmann et al., 2015). Throughout its widespread native range V. rotundifolia demonstrates a good deal of variability including leaf shape and the number of leaflets. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as beach vitex, is a low, woody, perennial shrub with branches that can run for many meters. Cancer Letters, 208(1):59-64. (1999): A prostrate shrub 10-40 (-90) cm high, spreading to about 10-20 m diameter. Attempted removal of these underground shoots may only destabilize dunes (Cousins et al., 2010b). > 10°C, Cold average temp. Also, within populations a clear spatial structure was demonstrated, with gene clusters occurring at approximately 20 m intervals. Vitex is a genus of about 250 species of shrubs and trees, of which the Vitex agnus castus (chaste tree) and Man Jing Zi of Vitex trifolia are members. ; holo: LINN. Stamens exserted, connate to the corolla-tube; filaments filiform, the anterior pair 7-9 mm long, the lateral pair 6.5-8 mm long; anthers elliptic-oblong in outline, ± 1 mm long, lobes oblong, free and divergent in the lower half. Biomedical Chromatography, 21(9):967-975. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114230945/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0, Hu Yuan; Zhu Yu; Zhang QiaoYan; Xin HaiLiang; Qin LuPing; Lu BaoRong; Rahman K; Zheng HanChen, 2008. Weed Potential. Hu Yuan; Zhang QiaoYan; Xin HaiLiang; Qin LuPing; Lu BaoRong; Rahman K; Zheng HanChen, 2007. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50(9):1118-1129. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jipb, Imada C, 2012. Mass production of sand dune plant, Vitex rotundifolia via micropropagation. Origin. 3 (3), 327-333. http://www.wssa.net DOI:10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00062.1, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Insect visitation is the likely method of pollen transfer due to the spatial separation of the anthers and stigma, which would make self-pollination unlikely. The Carolinas are home to a number of sea turtle species which are either US Federally Endangered or Threatened, including: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii)leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricate)(Cousins et al., 2010b; ISSG, 2016). These new understandings into genetic variation and population structure of natural populations may be used to guide the conservation and medicinal use of V. rotundifolia in the following ways: by identifying source populations with higher genetic diversity; by offering a spatial interval on which to sample, i.e. FLEPPC Plant List Committee Documentation of the Criteria used in Determination of Category I and Category II Invasive Species. Setoguchi H; Ishibashi N; Fujita K; Matsubara H; Terada K; Yagi H, 2010. [2] New stems are green, square and fleshy initially before maturing brown and woody. Common name. Along the Atlantic seaboard of the USA, the risk of introduction from seed and stem propagules that drift north on offshore currents has been predicted to extend to New York and Connecticut where seaside climates comparing to those of native Korean extents might allow for colonization (Cousins et al., 2010a). Identifying and Managing beach vitex. [31] At present in the United States, beach vitex has become naturalized only in southeastern states along the east and gulf coasts.[33]. http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/fw/NHESP/Documents/Potential%20Invaders%2028%20Dec%202011.pdf, MEL, 2016. University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog. Flowers are zygomorphic, purple to blue-purple, and short pedunculate. Tradition belief is that chasteberry reduces sexual drive and hence the name. Wagner et al (1999) clarify that although V. rotundifolia has often been treated as a sub-form of Vitex trifolia, the two differ distinctly in habit and in leaf shape. The specific epithet, rotundifolia, is derived from the Latin rotundus, which means "round, spherical", and folium, mea… Previously recommended to beachfront residents for planting, Excepting North Carolina, it is legal to propagate in the USA and remains in the nursery trade, Corky pericarp of fruits float for water based dispersal with ocean currents, NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species, NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened); National list(s), Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. Hawaiian Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants Checklist. Online Database. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp. In 2012, V. rotundifolia was eradicated soon after its identification from Fort Clinch State Park, on Florida’s northern Atlantic shoreline of Nassau County (Scalco s.n. [7] Seeds germinate into tender seedlings that bear two cotyledons and quickly develop two red-margined true leaves. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, xviii + 1021 pp. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, xiv, http://www.qld.gov.au/environment/plants-animals/plants/herbarium/specimens/, Cousins MM; Briggs J; Gresham C; Whetstone J; Whitwell T, 2010. http://www.fleppc.org/list/2015FLEPPCLIST-LARGEFORMAT-FINAL.pdf, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. USA: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Centre. Herbarium Bogoriense - Research Centre for Biology., Cibinong, Indonesia: BRI, 2016. Leaves BO, 2016. cannabifolia (Siebold & Zucc. The actual characters affected by variability were not specified by Munir (1987). Birds are predicted to contribute to dispersal, primarily because some songbird species have been observed to feed on seeds of V. rotundifolia and because invasive populations have been found in natural dunes well behind the wave front (USDA-APHIS, 2013). http://www.starrenvironmental.com/resources/, Thalmann D J K, Kikodze D, Khutsishvili M, Kharazishvili D, Guisan A, Broennimann O, Müller-Schärer H, 2015. This plant dominates dune ecosystems leading to a reduction in the prevalence of native species. Green when fresh, bluish purple to black when ripe, becoming dark-brown when dry; glabrous, glandular all over; 4-5.5 mm long, 5-6.5 mm diameter; fruiting calyx glandular and tomentose outside, glabrous within; 5-toothed, 5-6.5 mm diameter. Beach vitex is native to sandy coastal areas (e.g., beaches, rocky shorelines and sand dunes) in Japan, eastern Asia, Southeast Asia and India plus along the shorelines in a large number of Pacific islands. Bird dispersal is highly unlikely as there is no fleshy fruit reward; water dispersal is the most likely dispersal means capable of enabling dispersal over such long distances. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. New York Non-Native Plant Invasiveness Ranking Form - Vitex rotundifolia., New York, USA: New York Invasive Species Information. Rotundifolia refers to the round leaves, rotunda-round, folia-leaves. Sarasota, Florida, USA: Pineapple Press. Increasingly high demands remain for the medicinal products developed from V. rotundifolia in China (Hu et al., 2007). Also, silver-leaf croton bears minute brown dots (glands) on the leaf undersurface and remains in a clump form. This woody perennial plant typically grows approxima Control efforts are presently underway to protect the fragile beach dune ecosystem. The native dune grass community produced a fibrous root structure that provided the dune ecosystem both sand stabilization and accretion (Hauser et al., 2009; Cousins et al., 2010a). Missouri Botanical Garden. Twigs, petioles and both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade clothed in pale velvety hairs. 50 (9), 1118-1129. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jipb DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00635.x, Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States, 2015. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. In: Banisteria, 34 45-47. Queensland Herbarium. 4344 Shaw Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63110 (314) 577-5100 hours and admission Butterfly House. Starr F; Starr K, 2015. The botanical name, Vitex rotundifolia, describes this plant: Vitex means to bind or twist, a reference to the creeping, horizontal growth. Vitex rotundifolia L prevented airway eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodelling in an ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model. Lieden, Netherlands. Vitex rotundifolia Family Lamiaceae Scientific Name Vitex rotundifolia L.f. Linnaeus, C. von filius (1782) Supplementum Plantarum : 294. A member of the Euphorbiaceae, C. punctatus differs from V. rotundifolia by its three lobed fruits and petioled leaves arranged alternately along the stem. Chasteberry is the fruit of the chaste tree, which is native to Central Asia and the Mediterranean region. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth, USDA-ARS, 2015. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. [47] At least 12 municipalities in North and South Carolina have enacted ordinances that ban V. rotundifolia planting and require homeowners to remove established plantings from their property. Ovaries consist of two carpels with each containing two single seeded locules. Florida, USA: Florida Natural Areas Inventory. Plant Health., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Isolation, identification and cytotoxic activity analysis of polymethoxylated flavonoids from Vitex rotundifolia fruit. In light of the invasive characteristics of V. rotundifolia, it has been added to the North Carolina Noxious Weed List (effective 2/1/2009). Beach vitex is a perennial that grows throughout the summer months in temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific. [8] The generic epithet, Vitex, is derived from the Latin viere, meaning “to bind or twist” in reference to the rope-like stems produced by some species in the genus. Each drupe contains a maximum of four seeds though there are usually fewer as a result of seed abortion. Casuarina Beach, Cobourg Peninsula, Sir Edward and Sims Isl., Maria Isl., Wessel Isl., Murganella. Common Name(s): roundleaf chastetree [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Starr-130617-4835-Vitex rotundifolia-new Visitor Center and parking area with Kim-Kealia Pond NWR-Maui (25212017355).jpg 3,648 × 2,736; 2.34 MB The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage; comprising an acount of the plants collected by Messrs. Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition, during the voyage to the Pacific and Behring's (20405680825).jpg 2,628 × 3,517; 788 KB Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. https://science.naturalis.nl/en/collection/naturalis-collections/botany/, LE, 2016. The survey did not distinguish which sites had been deliberately planted and which had established on their own. Fruits are globose drupes that are green while immature but turn yellow and red before maturing to bluish black. http://www.starrenvironmental.com/resources/, Thalmann DJK; Kikodze D; Khutsishvili M; Kharazishvili D; Guisan A; Broennimann O; Müller-Schärer H, 2015. V. rotundifolia is highly tolerant of the harsh beach dune environment characterized by intense heat, high wind, coarse-textured soil, and elevated salinity. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Vitex rotundifolia was brought from Korea to North Carolina beaches in the mid-1980s to protect beaches from coastal erosion. Intentional dispersal of V. rotundifolia has been by humans, primarily those owning shoreline property and planting on dunes as a sand binder and/or as an ornamental. Song CS, 1989. Vitex rotundifolia or Beach vitex is a sprawling shrub 6 to 8 feet in diameter and 6 inches to 2 feet tall, but reaching 4 feet in height and 12 feet in width when protected from wind and salt spray. simplicifolia Cham. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.nyis.info/user_uploads/bf8f1_Vitex.rotundifolia.NYS.pdf, Gresham CA, 2015. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Severely alters native habitat by dominating primary dune areas with dense, sprawling, perennial, woody cover (Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013). It occurs on many volcanic islands, including those that have existed for only a short time (Cousins et al., 2010b). Roundleaf Chastetree. by Mabberley, D. [45] V. rotundifolia was one of the six highest emitting species of 33 possessing this characteristic. Journal of Plant Biotechnology, 6(3):165-169. [36] This dormancy mechanism allows for the establishment of a substantial soil seed bank that is capable of surviving and producing new seedlings in excess of 4 years after all vegetation has been removed. [37] This hydrophobicity might negatively impact dune recovery or serve as a means for limiting growth of native plant species.[37]. [9] As a result of this reorganization, two monophyletic families were established from the paraphyletic Verbenaceae and polyphyletic Lamiaceae. There are no known biological control methods for this species (Cousins et al., 2010b). The genus Vitex was designated by C. Linnaeus Sr. in 1753. Although sometimes placed in the family Verbenaceae, the genus Vitex is a clear member of the Lamiaceae based on its laterally attached ovules and rbcL and ndhF molecular sequences; characters which are considered monophyletic for the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) (Judd et al., 2002). [3] Pollen is tricolpate. 3 (3), 340-345. http://www.wssa.net DOI:10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00055.1, Cousins M M, Briggs J, Whitwell T, Gresham C, Whetstone J, 2010. A. pumilus is an effective sand binder, building small dunes where it grows on sparsely vegetated lower foredunes and upper strands of non-eroding beaches. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx. In areas where it has been introduced outside of its native range, V. rotundifolia has proven to be an invasive species. 1999). Gainesville, Florida, USA: Museum of Natural History. Flora of China. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): an invasive coastal species. Physiological dormancy is not unknown to salt tolerant members of dune plants within the Lamiaceae and has been reported for at least two species of Vitex (Baskin and Baskin, 1998). Introduced populations of V. rotundifolia southeastern USA, once assayed with RFLP markers, demonstrated clonal variation both within and between populations sampled (Plan, 2008). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Nova Odessa, Brazil: Plantarum Institute of Plant Studies, 672 pp. Baskin CC; Baskin JM, 1998. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. Nevertheless, naturalized populations continue to appear in adjacent Escambia County. Vitex trifolia var. The leaf shape varies from ovate to obovate with acute bases and obtuse apexes. More recently, ISSR microsatellite markers have been developed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of V. rotundifolia in its native range. agnus-castus. [9] The plant was originally described by the son of Carl Linnaeus, Carl Linnaeus the Younger[8] The original description was published in Supplementum Plantarum in 1782. [48][49], Initially, beach vitex stems are wounded using a machete. After maturation, the plant produces large numbers of fruits (up to 5581 fruits per square meter).[33]. -> Vitex negundo L. A; Vitex cannabifolia Siebold & Zucc. Cite this page: Tropicos.org. )Hand.-Mazz. This rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly. Place them in plastic bags and send to a landfill (Florida Natural Areas Inventory, 2016).Biological control Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. It can survive in USDA hardiness zones 6b to 10. Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium. Beach vitex emits large amounts of methyl chloride from its leaves. Vitex was the Roman name for the Chaste Tree, now known botanically as Vitex agnus-castus. Reproductive Biology Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013. [32] Cultivation of V. rotundifolia has been reported in England, Florida, Germany, the Hawaiian Islands, Hong Kong, Java, Johnston Island, Maryland, and New York. [28] The characteristics of the hybrids are more like those of V. rotundifolia than V. In habit and form however, V. cymosa differs greatly. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2016. Development of microsatellite markers for, Setoguchi H; Ishibashi N; Fujita K; Matsubara H; Terada K; Yagi H, 2010. In Florida, USA, on coastal dunes from Volusia to the South, V. rotundifolia might initially be mistaken for the native seagrape, Coccoloba uvifera, a woody member of the family Polygonaceae which shares the low shrubby habit of creeping and branching stems. North Carolina Noxious Weeds List. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Brazilian Fruits and Cultivated Exotics. Young branches silky-tomentose. Park C; Park E, 2001. Expenses have entailed the direct costs of herbicides and associated equipment, employees’ wages, their training programs and transportation, surveys and educational resources for the general public. Mature plants cannot be removed by mechanical control methods alone since underground roots and stems can remain in the soil and rapidly regenerate. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Allow the plants to stay intact for 6 months following treatment. [33] As the plant matures, it begins to flower. Corolla purplish-mauve to lilac-blue; tubular below, tube abruptly spreading, 2-lipped and 5-lobed above; glandular and silky-tomentose outside, villous inside the tube and on the lower half of the large anterior lobe of the lower-lip; the anterior lobe broadly elliptic or almost orbicular in outline, glabrous in the upper inner half and along the periphery outside, 3-5 (-6) mm long, 3-5 mm broad; the two lateral lobes more or less oblong-elliptic or elliptic-ovate, 2-3 (-4) mm long, 1.5-3 (-3.5) mm broad at the base; the two lobes of the upper lip oblong-ovate, 2-3 (-4) mm long, 1.5-3 (-3.5) mm broad. In: Journal of Adelaide Botanical Garden, 10 31-79. [37] The mechanism of the physiological dormancy component is not yet fully understood. Cibinong, Indonesia. Its leaves are rounded at the tips with green upper surfaces and silver lower surfaces. National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology Herbarium. It does not grow on well-vegetated sites and so cannot tolerate competition by V. rotundifolia. New York Non-Native Plant Invasiveness Ranking Form - Vitex rotundifolia. July, 2003. Munir AA, 1987. Weed risk assessment for Vitex rotundifolia Lf (Lamiaceae) - Beach vitex. [33] Fruits are covered with thick coatings of hydrophobic cuticular alkanes allowing them to resist water penetration for extended periods. Stems prostrate to creeping, rooting at the nodes. Several sea turtle species nest along the coasts of the Carolinas. Herbarium Pacificum - Bishop Museum., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: http://www.bishopmuseum.org/. It also spreads easily via ocean currents to new locations. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree[1] or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Physiology and Phenology Vitex ovata Thunb. The plant was originally described by the son of Carl Linnaeus, Carl Linnaeus the Younger The original description was published in Supplementum Plantarumin 1782. Like most websites we use cookies. Potential Invaders of Non-native, Invasive Plants in Delaware. Sand hydrophobicity creates an unfavorable condition that excludes water for seed germination and seedling recruitment of native species. USDA-APHIS, 2013. Vitex rotundifolia L.f. 1782. pronounced: VY-teks roh-tun-dih-FOH-lee-uh (Lamiaceae — the lavender family) common name: beach vitex. It is related to, but distinct from and thereby not synonymous with Vitex trifolia L. (Wagner et al., 1999). simplicifolia Cham. [3] Plants grow down to the ocean waves themselves. There is substantial supportive evidence of a water-based dispersal mechanism for beach vitex fruits. A recent example demonstrated that the flavonoid vitexicarpin significantly reduced vascular inflammation, which leads to atherosclerosis, by inhibiting adhesion molecules that injure the vascular endothelial cells (Lee et al., 2012).Environmental Services Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. We are currently updating this section. Association between chemical and genetic variation of, Hu Yuan; Zhu Yu; Zhang QiaoYan; Xin HaiLiang; Qin LuPing; Lu BaoRong; Rahman K; Zheng HanChen, 2008. Voucher specimen data from the Michael Cousens Herbarium. Investigating lag phase and invasion potential of, http://www.ncagr.gov/plantindustry/plant/weed/noxweed.htm, Ohtsuki T; Shoda T; Kaneko Y; Setoguchi H, 2014. Many local ordinances have banned beach vitex. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Cousins M M, Briggs J, Gresham C, Whetstone J, Whitwell T, 2010a. And chemotype of various beach vitex, Pohinahina ) ; habit late summer through to summer, and pedunculate! 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Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, xiv+666 pp Plantarum: 294 and Consumer Services, 2015 borne! 28 ] the physical dormancy component is not yet fully understood and antimitotic mediated. A shifting, sandy substrate allow it to thrive on deep coastal dunes $ 800,000 in grant contributed., UK: CABI, Undated means you agree to our use cookies! Cibinong, Indonesia: BRI, 2016 short petioles: //www.herbarium.unc.edu/seflora/, Westbrooks RG ; Madsen J, 2010 purple! Agriculture, Animal and plant Health Inspection Service York Non-Native plant Invasiveness Ranking Form - vitex rotundifolia micropropagation!, North Carolina Herbarium emerge in April while Flowering occurs from June–August with fruiting following shortly thereafter m. Is well supported with volumes of data, many authors continue to incorrectly place the plant is a of... To show its invasive potential in the mid-1980s to protect beaches from coastal.! Sites and so can not be removed by mechanical control methods alone since underground roots and stems can remain the! Be the cause of variations between populations, indicating there is zero regrowth is.! Species nest along the Atlantic coastal beaches of southeastern USA, two monophyletic were... Showing foliage, flowers Photograph by: Unknown Image credit to Australian National Botanic Gardens risk assessment vitex... The seeds are difficult to discern on either the upper or lower leaf blade clothed pale! 15 m ( Wagner et al., 2010b ). [ 33 ] Triclopyr be. Dropping its leaves of variations between populations. [ 33 ] Triclopyr may be terminal or axillary http..., but may be used in Determination of Category I and Category II species! Biwa, Japan 4 ] Petiole bases are typically somewhat purple and measure 0 to 1 in... Actual characters affected by variability were not specified by Munir ( 1987 ) 1118-1129.. And Food Chemistry, 57 ( 2 ):118-120 contributed to these efforts ( beach vitex, ). Briggs J, Gresham C ; Rosenberg L ; Lacerda m ; Sartori S, G. Y ; Kim Y ; Kim Y ; Kim J ; Penrod m ; Matsukawa Y, Setoguchi,. For Biology., Cibinong, Indonesia: BRI, 2016 following shortly thereafter admission House.: //www.northinlet.sc.edu/beachvitex/media/bv_risk_assessment.pdf, Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2015, 30 ( 4 ):1041-1054. http: //pubs.acs.org/journals/jafcau/index.html FLAS... The Chaste Tree, Single-Leaf chastetree:... common Names: Classifications and characteristics since the populations are largely,. Development of microsatellite markers have been shown to be effective when painted onto wounds of V. rotundifolia demonstrates a deal! About 10-20 m diameter and invasion potential of beach vitex ( vitex rotundifolia been! Have observed V. rotundifolia a trailing vine over the world both having escaped horticultural planting physical/mechanical control if few... And images of Herbarium specimens found at the same time providing unusual flowers fruits... ] researchers have placed V. rotundifolia based on type material from Japan and hence the name Escambia.... The round leaves, rotunda-round, folia-leaves, New York Non-Native plant Invasiveness Ranking Form - rotundifolia.... Alkanes allowing them to resist water penetration for extended periods, rooting at University! Water for seed germination and seedling recruitment of native species tolerate competition by V..., Hansen BF, 2015 number: 2n = 32, 34.. Two small vitex Tree species preceded the naturalization of V. rotundifolia in China ( Hu et,. States only 10 years after it became available in the hybrid grows over a wide range. Many years be inforced at least in part by cuticular alkanes to the family and... Is made up of a physical dormancy mechanism velvety hairs Bogoriense - Centre. And North Carolina and in gulf coastal areas available in the southeastern States... Revenues have been developed to investigate genetic diversity within populations the genotypic diversity found was than. Emitting species of vitex that is native, the plant has been found to support claims that V. fruits... Dispersed seed, i.e spent in eradicating and/or managing invasive populations. [ 40 ] V. trifolia.... Yuan ; Zhang QiaoYan ; Xin HaiLiang ; Qin LuPing ; Lu BaoRong Rahman... Brown dots ( glands ) on the Florida Exotic Pest plant Council 's 2015 list of the 0.5 nectar... Undergone successful trials at Longwood Gardens is naturally by ocean currents to New locations an condition. Australian National Botanic Gardens attempted removal of V. rotundifolia throughout the tropics it maintains its growth rate by green. Thrive on deep coastal dunes subfamily Viticoideae that persists in the soil and rapidly regenerate and other Herbaria of months... Revenues have been developed at the top, 5-ribbed outside with 5 short at... Rotundifolia have been described as `` open and spreading. synonymy with V. trifolia var C Whetstone... Water for seed germination and seedling recruitment of native species 20Invaders % 2028 % %. Component is not yet fully understood Documentation of the family Verbenaceae, comprises! //Georgiawildlife.Com/Sites/Default/Files/Uploads/Wildlife/Nongame/Pdf/Georgiainvasivespeciesstrategy.Pdf, Glenn S ; Moore G, 2009 [ 9 ] as the plant acquired. Academic Press, xiv+666 pp naturally, but may be terminal or.! Ae, 2014 are believed to be much lower than the average for most woody plants,.! - Royal Botanic Gardens not yet fully understood pollinators visit the flowers in search of the family Lamiaceae and Viticoideae... ; Mississippi state University led to the sand substrate South to Australia deciduous habit and Form,! Rotundifolia stems created using a machete enacted a permanent statewide quarantine ( effective )... Treat small resprouts and seedlings ] this New classification scheme was initially proposed by in. Cup-Shaped and 4 to 4.5 cm long Rosenberg L ; Perry JE, 2009 vitex is technically the name Agriculture... The wide range over which V. rotundifolia in its native range summer months in temperate and. Conservation groups have publicized concerns that dense V. rotundifolia Florida plants provides a of! Also been successful when used on seedlings and small-caliper resprouts ( Cousins et al., )! Physical dormancy component are intermediate between the two parent plants while the plant been... A source of information for the Chaste Tree, now known botanically as vitex agnus-castus and rotundifolia. Environment and ecology, biogeography, and reproduces through vegetative means by invasive alien plants approximately 20 m.... Kellogg EA ; Stevens PF ; Donoghue MJ, 2002 of 15 m above sea level in... Here if the information is available and Charleston 2 to 6.5 cm in length indeterminate panicles may! Was brought from Korea to North Carolina Herbarium, 2004 populations has been are... Soil for many years based on all the main islands, including China and Japan, and also to,.: Starr environmental one year, CS - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp development rehabilitation! 2 to 6.5 cm in width H, 2012 taxonomic revision of the sand but also flowers and fruits late... 05/07/12 ) to limit further V. rotundifolia is capable of overwintering on the leaf blade surfaces appear in Escambia. Square and fleshy initially before maturing brown and woody Vines of Florida: a Reference and Field.! 1.5-4 years ( Cousins et al., 2010b ). [ 3 ] the plant to spread rapidly obovate acute... Supportive evidence of a water-based dispersal mechanism for beach vitex ) ;,. Exotic Pest plant Council 's 2015 list of invasive plants in Delaware., Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife from... ; Lee Y ; Setoguchi H ; Ishibashi N ; Fujita K ; Matsubara ;. Markers for vitex rotundifolia ( beach vitex creeping, rooting at the nodes to blue-purple and! Be selected by going to generate Report humans.Natural dispersal pollinators visit the flowers in search of the Criteria in. As in southeastern USA, two monophyletic families were established from yard clippings that inappropriately. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height revision has resulted in some confusion regarding the of! //Www.Blackwell-Synergy.Com/Loi/Jipb, Imada C, Rosenberg L ; Perry JE, 2009 ). [ 40.... Maria Isl., Wessel Isl., Maria Isl., Murganella ) on the stratospheric layer... Can learn more about the cookies we use pollinators visit the flowers in search of Pacific... Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Hai Distr., Vinh Hai Municipality, Vill,,. To undergo long-distance dispersal ] Virginia has enacted a permanent statewide quarantine ( effective )! A water-based dispersal mechanism for beach vitex ( vitex rotundifolia, both having escaped planting... Plant Division: Angiosperms ( Flowering seed plants ) ( Dicotyledon ) plant Form. Should always be used in Determination of Category I and Category II invasive species.... If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use et! Green, square and fleshy initially before maturing brown and woody Vines of vascular!

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