Psychoanalytic Criticism, Jungian Criticism(1930s-present) 4. Start studying Critical Theories List. Critical Race Theory is against free societies. Even among those listed below, combine methods from more than one of these approaches (for instance, the deconstructive approach of Paul de Man drew on a long tradition of close reading pioneered by the New Critics, and de Man was trained in the European hermeneutic tradition). In 1923, Felix decided to use his father’s money to found an institute specifically devoted to the study of German society in the light of a Marxist approach. Feminism, New Historicism and Psychoanalytic theory are examples of literary criticism that perform the cultural work of exposing and challenging ideologies contained within a text, focusing on the political implications that inform and are represented within a work. Critical theory – the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.The term has two different meanings with different origins and histories: one originating in sociology and the other in literary criticism. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to critical theory: . But it was not until the broad impact of structuralism began to be felt in the English-speaking academic world that “literary theory” was thought of as a unified domain. Marxist Criticism (1930s-present) 5. In ancient times, Greek scholars took materialist and philosophical approaches to understanding and preserving historical contexts. Psychoanalytic theory seeks to understand and critique literature and its implications about culture from a Freudian perspective, often examining literary content and its reflection of society or government as a symbolism of basic human motives. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_theory. According to these theorists, a critical theory may be distinguished from a traditional theory according to a specific practical purpose: a theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation from slavery, acts as a liber… Feminists take for their study the subjects of marginalization and minority cultures, while New Historicists look at a text in relation to its historical context and influences. Broad schools of theory that have historically been important include historical and biographical criticism, New Criticism, formalism, Russian formalism, and structuralism, post-structuralism, Marxism, feminism and French feminism, post-colonialism, new historicism, deconstruction, reader-response criticism, and psychoanalytic criticism. It differs from traditional theory, which focuses only on understanding or explaining society. There are many types of literary theory, which take different approaches to texts. The proponents of each theory believe their theory is the theory, but most of us interpret texts according to the "rules" of several different theories at a time. Formalism, an example of aesthetic criticism, examines and critiques the inherent qualities of a literary text, while reducing or minimizing its historical, political or cultural contexts. Critical Theories: Marxist, Conflict, and Feminist. Critical Theory Reading List Several people have asked me to provide a reading list of primary sources that will give them a good grounding in contemporary critical theory, which forms the ideological foundation for large segments of the modern social justice movement. Kennedy and Dana Gioia’s Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, Sixth Edition (New … The twenty-two selections in Critical Theory: The Essential Readings provide students with a lucid overview of the central themes and concerns of critical theory. Specific theories are distinguished not only by their methods and conclusions, but even by how they define a “text.”. As literary theory is used to interpret and explain texts, scholars use historical theories to understand and critique historical events. Post-Structuralism/Deconstruction (1966-present) 8. In all of the major academic disciplines, established schools of thought exist. The Critical Race Theory training was exposed by Christopher Rufo, a contributing editor for the Manhattan Institute’s City Journal.. Its philosophy is a re#ection of realities, potentials, and limits of struggles. Quotations are from X.J. A literary work is converted into an activity that goes on in a reader's mind, and what had been features of the work itself--including narrator, plot, characters, style, and structure--are less important than the connection between a reader's experience and the text. Structuralism/Semiotics (1920s-present) 7. Critical theory (also capitalized as Critical Theory to distinguish the school of thought from a theory that is in some way "critical" ) is an approach to social philosophy that focuses on reflective assessment and critique of society and culture in order to reveal and challenge power structures. Several versions of critical theory exist, but all explain crime in terms of group differences in power. Other major theories of rhetoric and philosophy include realism, which regards absolute truth as independent of yet knowable to people; relativism, which holds that reality and truth are manifold, dependent upon human influence and interpretation and Existentialism, which, as immortalized in the philosopher Descartes' quote, "I think, therefore I am," maintains that people actively construct existence, truth and reality through thought. This is not a chaos of subjectivity. Critical Approaches to Literature Plain text version of this document. List the three basic theories of art criticism and explain each one. Crossref Volume 7 , Issue 1 One of the fundamental questions of literary theory is “what is literature?” – although many contemporary theorists and literary scholars believe either that “literature” cannot be defined or that it can refer to any use of language. With origins in sociology and literary criticism, it argues that social problems are influenced and created more by societal structures and cultural assumptions than by individual and psychological factors. Psychoanalytic theory seeks to understand and critique literature and its implica… At the heart of the theories in this chapter is social stratification by class and power, and they are the most “politicized” of all criminological theories. This handbook grants the reader access to the tradition and the core concepts and approaches of critical theory. Instead, critical theory tries to examine what types of questions we should pose about literary works. Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present) 6. Critical theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole. In the academic world of the United Kingdom and the United States, literary theory was at its most popular from the late 1960s (when its influence was beginning to spread outward from elite universities like Johns Hopkins, Yale, and Cornell) through the 1980s (by which time it was taught nearly everywhere in some form). If you're interested in knowing more, see the Purdue Online Writing Lab or OWL or read Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide, by Louis Tyson. In history, major critical theories abound. Just like everything else in life, art has its critics. 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