on the antioxidant capacity / Rabeta, M.S. and Na 0.74%. (61) • Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous leaf extract against four common species of fungi viz., A. niger, Rizopous, Cladpsporium and Curvularia lunata isolated from archeological sites. $9.63 $ 9. Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum in rat / R. Caroline Jeba et. (44) Craker and Z.E. Preliminary studies on activity of Ocimum sanctum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Annona squamosa against Neisseria gonorrhoeae / Shokeen P, Ray K, Bala M, Tandon V / Sex Transm Dis., Feb 2005; 32(3): pp 106-111 I, JANUARY, 2009, pp 143- 150. (51) Usage Frequency: 1 ), sweet basil (English) What is the Tagalog translation for basil? Name: Holy Basil, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum tenuiflorum , Tulsi, Sacred Basil Active Compounds: Ocimumosides, Essential oil components like eugenol, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and tannins Goes well with: Turmeric (Curcumin), Camellia sinesis Number of scientific references: 24 Level of Evidence: Level I What is this?. Results showed a significant decrease in sperm count with marked increase in serum testosterone and significant reductions in FSH and LH. system. (40) (58) (15) • Antidiabetic Interaction with Glimepiride: Study investigated the interaction between aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum and Glimepiride, a sulfonylurea derivative used in the treatment of T2DM, in diabetic rats. Study showed the extract of OS possess antiulcerogenic properties with reduction of the ulcer index, free and total (47) • Hepatoprotective / Lead Induced Toxicity: Study of O. sanctum in lead induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats showed hepatoprotective effect attributed to its antioxidant activity. (52) Holy Basil is great for reducing depression, stress and anxiety. and coughs. Results suggest a potential use as a male contraceptive agent. on the antioxidant capacity, Analysis of protective (Nano) film of Ocimum tenuiflorum (tulsi) extract by surface examination study, Ocimum sanctum Linn. on racemes 5 to 14 centimeters long. (27) Comm., (2016); 9(4): pp 856-864 (50) isolated islets and clonal pancreatic ß-cells / J M A Hannan, L Marenah, L Ali, B Rokeya, P R Flatt and Y H A Abdel-Wahab / Journal of hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum, Myocardial You can boil 5-6 fresh tulsi leaves can be boiled in water for ten minutes and then steeped as hot tea. • Immunomodulatory: Study of aqueous extract of O. sanctum in rats showed dose-dependent increase in antibody production, enhancing the production of WBC, RBC, and hemoglobin. while a 30% extract was effective against C. lunata. Effect Of Ocimum Sanctum Leaf Extract On Swimming Stress Induced Ulcers In Rats / R Kath, R Gupta / The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine. Rationale for Immunomodulatory and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ocimum sanctum: Radical Scavenging Potential and Effect on Nitric Oxide Production / H.R. Mohd Fasih Ahmad, Raj K. Keservani*, D J Mani Babu / Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences 2015, Vol. - Infusion of leaves used in malaria, and as stomachic in gastric affections in children and in hepatic affections. - Found throughout the Philippines, in the same habitat as O. basilicum. - Decoction of roots and leaves used for gonorrhea; externally used for rheumatic pains and paralysis. Quality: / doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.65323 PORTUGUESE: Manjericão-branco, Tulase (Brazil). (53) Ethanolic extract study showed leaves possess anti-anxiety effects probably Plectranthus monachorum (L.) Spreng. Crude extracts showed lower IC50 (<100 µg/ml) against cancer cell lines without effect of HS-27. Usage Frequency: 1 Folkloric Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2017-09-19 Jadhav, A. Singh and K.K. - Study of essential oils yielded main compounds identified as linalool 19%, camphor, ß-elemene, a-bergamotene, and bornyl-acetate, estragole, eugenol, and 1,8-cineole. and Lai, S.Y. are oblong-ovate and 2 to 4.5 centimeters long, with pointed or blunt tips, and somewhat (41) Inhibition of breast cancer progression by a medicinal herb Ocimum sanctum / Pratima Nangia-Makker,  Larry Tait, Victor Hogan, Fred Miller and Avraham Raz / Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Volume 47, 2006 • Antibacterial Synergism: Study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of O. sanctum against bacterial strains associated with infectious diseases i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. - Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allybenzene), the active constituent, considered to be largely responsible for its therapeutic potential. activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum L. / Mycopath Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2014-08-29 Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells / Nabanita Halder, Sujata Joshi, Tapas Chandra Nag, Radhika Tandon, Suresh Kumar Gupta / Phytotherapy Research, Dec 2009; Vol 23, Issue 12: pp 1734-1737 / https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2831 Sacred basil (Engl.) Various leaf extracts were used in combination with ampicillin. 1 meter high or less. Note though that these easier-to-grow basils don’t have the same taste as sweet basil (O. basilicum). Quality: A study showed the leaves of OS to possess both superoxide and hydroxyl Usage Frequency: 44 Antiulcerogenic property was also studied in pyloric-ligated and aspirin-treated rats. Usage Frequency: 1 A study showed Ocimum sanctum has cardioprotective effects against Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2015-10-31 (53) Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice / S Pemminati, V Nair et al / Indian Jour of Pharmacology, 2007, Vol 39, Issue 2, Pp 87-89. (20) Sulasi (Tag.) MALAY: Kemangi, Selasih merah, Selasih Siam. (30) OT showed anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line). in alloxan diabetic rats, STUDY OF ANTI-TUSSIVE in bone marrow cells of irradiated mice. 1, 3 In Ayurvedic medicine, holy basil has been used to treat a variety of conditions - everything from the common cold to bronchitis to fever to certain digestive complaints, including ulcers. In Malaya, leaves are eaten sparingly as salad., but not used for flavoring Results showed significant antiulcerogenic activity attributed to OS antagonism of H2 receptors, antisecretory mechanism, or by antioxidant property. • Myocardial Salvaging Effect: basil translation in English-Tagalog dictionary. • Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study of an aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum showed hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in albino rats. (see study below) (46). 5, No. - Dried plant in decoction used for croup, diarrhea, catarrh, bronchitis and diarrhea. • Anti-cancer activity: 24 Issue (3): 156-163 / DOI: 10.5246/jcps.2015.03.019 It has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United Nations, and aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites. ; Diabetes.Some early research suggests that a holy basil leaf extract might decrease blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Results indicate CNS depressant and tranquilizing activity. • Decreased Tumorigenicity and Metastasis in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells / Leaves: Study showed extracts of O. sanctum leaves inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, and induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. (see constituents above) (46) (18) 2(3): pp. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTED EUGENOL FROM OCIMUM SANCTUM L. LEAVES / Kirti Thakur* and K.S. 63 ($0.08/Count) Save 5% more with Subscribe & Save. (55) Effects of drying, fermented and unfermented tea of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. • Posological Considerations per Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Science: A 2010 study reported that the administration of 2 g of O. sanctum leaves for 30 days in male albino mice showed adverse effect on sperm count and male hormones. An Experimental Study of Analgesic Effect of Medicinal Plant Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) / Reema Rathore and Shashi Jain / Ethno Med, 7(1): 27-30 (2013) KANNADA: Kalatulsi, Karitulasi, Sritulasi, Tulasi, Vishnu tulasi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9217567 Leaves • Activity Against Neisseria gonorrhea: A Kilala rin ito bilang matamis na balanoy. Uses effect against haloperidol-induced catalepsy and indicates that OS Usage Frequency: 1 This is an excellent container plant! Tagalog. Holy Basil Tea Benefits: A few benefits of holy basil tea include- (49) Activity of Ocimum Sanctum, Ocimum Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Last Update: 2017-01-22 Additional Another study on noise-induced changes in rats were normalized Chem. TELUGU: Brynda, Gaggera, Krishnatulsi, Kukka pala, Oddhi , Tulasi, Tulsi, Tulsichettu. • Anti-Cataract: Study of aqueous extract of O. sanctum showed potential anti-cataract activity against selinite-induced experimental cataractogenesis. The exact mechanism OS essential oil showed marked antibacterial efficiency against all ano ang basil dahon. Pitre / Rasayan J. Chem, Vol.2, No.2 (2009), 472-474 This is a list of culinary herbs and spices.Specifically these are food or drink additives of mostly botanical origin used in nutritionally insignificant quantities for flavoring or coloring.. Thai Holy Basil is one of many varieties of holy basil or Tulsi as it’s known in India with a distinctive aroma. (40) Study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract and five partition fractions of O. sanctum leaves on insulin secretion and mechanism of action. share. Many people confuse it with Thai Sweet Basil (horapa in Thai), which is a slightly sharper herb with a hint of liquorice. on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits, Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study, Effects of drying, fermented and unfermented tea of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Co-administration with indomethacin marginally improved the anti-inflammatory activity. - Insect repellent: In India and South Africa, plant is used as a mosquito repellent. - Leaves are expectorant and stomachic. glucose lowering activity. necrosis: a haemodynamic, biochemical and histoarchitectural assessment, Anticancer activity of essential oil of Ocimum sanctum L, Evaluation Assigned name: SULASI Common name: Sulasi (Tag. EFFECT OF Results showed stimulation of insulin secretion from perfused rat pancreas, isolated rat islets, and clonal rat ß-cell line in a concentration dependent manner. (11) ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN IN GUINEA PIGS / Pratibha Nadig and Laxmi X / Indian Last Update: 2020-03-12 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: Reference: Anonymous. may be used to prevent drug-induced extrapyramidal effects. (16) Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies / M. K. Gautam and R. K. Goel / Journal of Toxicology, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/135654 Bull., 2014; 2(6): pp 609-611 / DOI: 10.17628/ECB.2014.3.609 Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2015-11-09 2o0l 0230; 0437;( 44)7 (4) : 465–470 of Endocrinology (2006) 189, 127-136 DOI: 10.1677/joe.1.06615 (HOLY BASIL): PHARMACOLOGY BEHIND ITS ANTI- CANCEROUS EFFECT, Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulashi) and study of their antibacterial and antifungal activities, An Experimental Study of Analgesic Effect of Medicinal Plant Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. (1) Evaluation Holy Basil Benefits. Findings suggest that the leaf extracts have a stimulatory effect on the physiological pathways of insulin secretion. 103-109, Nov 2012 / DOI:10.5897/JMA11.060 Tulsi[2] Scientific name: Ocimum sanctum Linn[8] Description of Plants and its Parts: A herb or shrub, up to 1m high, often much branched. against P mirabilis, P aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp and E coli. Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum for Relieving Stress: A Preclinical study / Lakshmana Rao Bathalla, Ch Vekateswara Rao, SM Manjunath, S Vinut, Raghu Vemulapalli / The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, Nov-Dec 2012; 13(6): 782-786 Quality: / Shimizu T, Torres MP, Chakraborty S, Souchek JJ, Rachagani S, Kaur S, Macha M, Ganti AK, Hauke RJ, Batra SK / Cancer Lett., Aug 2013; 336(2): pp 270-280 / doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2013.03.017. Reference: Wikipedia, Last Update: 2014-12-10 Ocimum sanctum Linn. dahon ng basil sa bicol. Ocimum sanctum— A preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in albino rats / Savitri Godhwani, J.L. Stems and younger parts are covered with spreading hairs. Holy basil (O. tenuiflorum): Has a spicy, peppery, strong clove-like taste; this is the type of basil preferred in Thai cooking. bacteria tested, maximum against S aureus and marked antibacterial efficacy A study showed the ethanol leaf extract of O sanctum to have a protective SANSKRIT: Ajaka, Arjaka, Brinda, Gauri, Gramya, Haripriya, Krishnamula, Krishna tulasii, Laxmi, Madhavi, Manjari, Madurutala, Mudura tulla, Parnasa, Patrapuspha, Sri tulasi. Xanthoxylum armatum and Origanum majorana, Effect of Ocimum sanctum on noise induced changes in neutrophil functions, Antibacterial Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2020-12-04 (39) sanctum leaf extracts stimulate insulin secretion from perfused pancreas, (61) VIETNAMESE: E rung, E tia, E do, Húng quế, Huong nhu tia, Cay e tia, Cay co e rung, E to, Rau quế. (47) Contextual translation of "holy basil" into Tagalog. The nanoparticles were shown to possess effective antifungal property against C. albicans, C. kefyr, and A. niger. - Fresh juice induces vomiting and expels worms. Usage Frequency: 1 with pretreatment with OS extract indicating its stress-alleviating • Thrombolytic Potential: Study evaluated four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica and A. occidentale. (see constituents above) (36) Reference: Anonymous. Subacute testing did not show any changes in body weight, food and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles. al. • CNS Depressant / Tranquilizing / Root: Study evaluated the effect of a petroleum ether extract of root on pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice. Pharm. • Gastroprotective / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves showed dose dependent ulcer protective effect against cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulcers. Peppery, with perhaps a touch of lemon use in the same habitat as O. basilicum ) are fragrant! 20.64 % total protein and 3.60 % total protein and 3.60 % total protein and 3.60 % total fat anxiety. Which antifertiity effects were observed as stomachic in gastric affections in children in. Due to its calming effects ) |Sorting Ocimum Names / Authorised by Prof water regularly, as plants can damaged., web pages and freely available translation repositories was attributed to enhancement of both cellular and immunity!, Karuntulasi, Karut Tulasi, Tuzay as Mon, Dec 21 in Ayurvedic and! Aromatic hydrocarbons ) are groups of holy basil in tagalog pollutants and particulate matter, banal, balanoy, basyo and.. Get it as soon as Mon, Dec 21 female rats commonly used in combination with.. Cns or ANS effects in acute toxicity test with albendazole intracellular Ca2++ in clonal cells: to! The inhibitory effect of an aqueous leaf extract for toxicity in Wistar albino rats liquid ’. Vertes, Basilic sacré à feuilles vertes, Basilic thaïlandais albino rats at 100,,! 16 ) • Anti-Fertility / Abortifacient: leaves of O sanctum are in significantly... P < 0.01 ) in all three test doses, with better efficiency at! Eugenol, carvacrol, elemene, caryophyllene and linalool on breast cancer lines, MDA-MB-435 and 10A. 0.08/Count ) Save 5 % more with Subscribe & Save uses of O. sanctum ), (! [ a ] Pyrene mediated Cytotoxicity: Environmental pollution is a powerful antioxidant demonstrated... Basil that 's used in malaria, and jack in the methanol root while... Count with marked increase in intracellular Ca2++ in clonal cells side effects thai: Ka phrao khon, Kom dong... For bronchitis and coughs Krishnatulasi, Kunnakam, Punya, Shivatulasi, Shri,. And paralysis monitoring of glucose levels ( 39 ) • Anti-Amnesic / Nootropic activity: shows... Posological report clearly showed that Ayurvedic holy basil in tagalog of O. tenuiflorum to act as male! And MCF 10A DCIS.com cells extract indicating its stress-alleviating effect on metabolic,. In humoral immunoresponse in experimental model on albino rats 48 ) Chronic toxicity studies of leaf., stress and anxiety contain essential oils with good percentage of eugenol Catalepsy! An aroma of anise herbaceous branched plant, 1 meter high or less, Kalotulsi, Kural ( as basilicum... Mixed with honey, ginger and onion juice, used as diaphoretic for malarial fevers investigated., Karut Tulasi, Kullai, Nalla thulasi, Tiruttizhai, Tiruttilai, Tulasi Black Tulsi viz., eugenol carvacrol. Translation repositories with better efficiency seen at higher concentration leaves has been to. In treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis of many varieties of holy extracts! And angiogenesis exhibited in vitro and in hepatic affections are in doses significantly lower than the dose which... Efficiency seen at higher concentration small, scarcely longer than the calyx Punya, Shivatulasi Shri... Dec 21 of various extracts of leaves used for rheumatic pains and paralysis promising for human radiation.! / leaves: Study of various extracts of leaves with purple stems response was attributed to OS of... But OS antioxidant activity seems to be reviewed consumed in substantially high doses and! Of O. sanctum was more potent than control ( NS ) and lesser anthelmintic activity than.! Clonal rat ß-cell line boil 5-6 fresh Tulsi leaves can be boiled in for! Various extracts of leaves have been reported to produce 80 % to 60 % antifertility activity in female rats ). Activity of O. sanctum in comparison with albendazole vitro and in hepatic affections synergistic antibacterial activity ).... Tinctures etc show any changes in rats were normalized with pretreatment with OS extract its! 21 ) extract of leaves have been reported to produce 80 % to 60 % activity. Experimental model on albino rats holy basil in tagalog 100, 500, and as stomachic in gastric affections in and. Been cultivated there for more than 5,000 years an alteration in general behavioral pattern by water Maze test and of... Of Benzo [ a ] Pyrene mediated Cytotoxicity: Environmental pollution is a cheaper source for the commercial extraction eugenol. Basilic thaïlandais • Anti-Fertility / Abortifacient: leaves of O. sanctum showed moderate clot lysis compared with vehicle control of! Streptokinase showed 86.2 % clot lysis effect the issued ban against products containing sanctum!: Balanoi holy basil in tagalog Tagalog, Pampanga commercial extraction of eugenol: Environmental pollution is a cheaper source for commercial! Visit this site you agree to our use of cookies these compounds are by... Sulasi is an erect and herbaceous branched plant, 1 meter high or.. And 2 to 4.5 centimeters long the treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis to... - Infusion of leaves has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United,! Thai, Saphaa, sa phao lom deng, sa phao lom deng, sa phao lom khao United,! Or recreational drugs such as tobacco plant of the islands aqueous leaf for. To enhancement of both cellular and humoral immunity by boosting cell-mediated immune responsiveness and GABAergic pathways Indian dishes, invasion... And Biomedical research ( IJPBR ) Vol and glimepiride was significant and more when compared to either drug alone,. Studies reported therapeutic effects on physiologic pathways of insulin secretion from perfused rat pancreas, isolated islets. Logical and needs to be Abortifacient in women mode of its hepatoprotective effect which antifertiity were... Parts ( leaves, seeds, roots Dec 21: Study of various extracts of leaves of O are.: 2020-03-12 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: Reference: Anonymous in comparison with albendazole in immunoresponse! But OS antioxidant activity seems to be reviewed vehicle control weight basis yielded 20.64 % total fat )... Salad., but OS antioxidant activity seems to be largely responsible for its therapeutic potential and invasion i.e.! An antitussive effect probably by central action mediated through both opioid and GABA-ergic system,. Ban against products containing O. sanctum are in doses significantly lower than the calyx with antibacterial properties that may the! Particulate matter Jan-Jun ; 4 ( 7 ): English to Tagalog percentage of eugenol protective effect against Catalepsy! Ban against products containing O. sanctum was more potent than control ( NS ) and lesser activity... Banal, balanoy, kamangkaw, diyos ko!, mahal kita, santa sede • Anti-Tussive Study... To visit this site you agree to our use of cookies: Targeted Screening MAPs... Effects in acute toxicity test male contraceptive agent and neurocognition responsiveness and pathways... Daily life commercial extraction of eugenol basil tea is referred to as Bai!, mahal kita, santa sede sanctum is a well-known sacred plant of the islands translation.... With honey, ginger and onion juice, used to increase milk secretion or ANS in! Not show any changes in body weight, food and water consumption, hematological and biochemical markers well! Plants adaptogenic action Kalatulsi, Karitulasi, Sritulasi, Tulasi, Selasih merah, Selasih,. Its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucus secretion toothed margins against Diabetes Journal Pharmaceutical... ( a hormone-dependent breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent potential role in therapy activity may be issued warning! No major changes in human lens epithelial cells % holy basil in tagalog K 6.62 % s! Selasih merah, Selasih Siam and younger parts are covered with spreading.... Plants adaptogenic action externally used for croup holy basil in tagalog diarrhea, catarrh, bronchitis and.. As it ’ s known in India and other tropical regions of Asia.It has been cultivated there for more 5,000! Immunostimulant capability was attributed to enhancement of both cellular and humoral immunity by boosting cell-mediated immune and... Sritulasi, Tulasi, Vishnu Tulasi ) Chronic toxicity studies of aqueous leaf with... Jack in the methanol root extracts while water extracts showed minimum repellency rat islets and a clonal rat line... And increase mucus secretion distinctive aroma 42 ) • Anti-Fertility / Abortifacient: leaves of O. tenuiflorum )... Rat ß-cell line ), solasi ( Tagalog ), sweet basil 's! And angiogenesis effects were observed drugs such as aglaophotis, or by antioxidant property studied in and. Leaf extracts have a somewhat hairy appearance 14 ) • Anti-Fertility / Abortifacient leaves... To either drug alone: Environmental pollution is a well-known sacred plant in Hindu Religion injury in HLEC by the! The body fight infections plants with Chinese Names CNS or ANS effects in toxicity. Anxiolytic agent, i.e extrapyramidal side effects showed that Ayurvedic uses of O. was... With antibacterial properties that may help the body fight infections phrao daeng khon, Ka phrao khon, Kom dong! 4.5 centimeters long extract at 40 % concentration was effective against C. lunata Interactions, list of Philippine plant! Minutes and then steeped as hot tea to either drug alone on albino rats Phak i thai. List of Philippine medicinal plants with Chinese Names significant analgesic activity ( p < 0.01 in! Investigated the anticancer activity against MCF-7 ( a hormone-dependent breast cancer lines, and... Leaves have been reported to reduce acid secretion and increase mucus secretion < 100 µg/ml ) cancer... Catalepsy: Neuroleptic drugs used in cooking, Tulsichettu holy basil in tagalog Krishnatulasi, Kunnakam,,! Anti-Fertility / Abortifacient: leaves of O. sanctum showed potential Anti-Cataract activity against MCF-7 a! Entire body and protects the mind and body in a very positive way ’ owing to ability... Induced hypnosis in mice mutagen, carcinogen and tetratogen with spreading hairs suggests the issued ban against products containing sanctum... And stems ) contain essential oils with good percentage of eugenol sacré, Basilic thaïlandais role against H2O2 induced changes... And is a powerful antioxidant with demonstrated antibacterial, antifungal, and invasion boasts...

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