Formation of Stable Phosphorus−Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus Nanoparticle−Graphite Composite Battery Anodes Jie Sun,†,# Guangyuan Zheng,‡ Hyun-Wook Lee,† Nian Liu,§ Haotian Wang,∥ Hongbin Yao,† Wensheng Yang,*,# and Yi Cui*,†,⊥ †Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ‡Department of Chemical Engineering, §Department of Chemistry, and This deformation, which begins at the edges of the black phosphorus layers, reduces the material’s quality to such an extent that lithium ions cannot easily transfer through it. Phosphorene is the name given to a monolayer of black phosphorus. 570 Westwood Plaza In‐depth understanding of the redox reactions between BP and the alkali metal ions is key to reveal the potential and limitations of BP, and thus to guide the design of BP‐based composites for high‐performance alkali metal ion batteries. “A typical trade-off lies in the storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material,” co-team leader Hengxing Ji tells Physics World. Ionic scissors cut out phosphorene nanoribbons. Ball milling method is simple and productive, and can control the ratio of … If scaled up, the anode material developed by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and colleagues in the US, including California NanoSystems Institute Member Xiangfeng Duan, might be used to manufacture batteries with an energy density of more than 350 watt-hours per kilogram – enough for a typical electric vehicle (EV) to travel 600 miles on a single charge. Black phosphorus (BP), an allotrope of phosphorus with orthorhombic structure has recently emerged, after having been known for over 100 years, as one of the next generation 2D materials with layered structure. Their paper is published in the journal Science. The term is also often used to describe several stacked monolayers, alternatively known as ‘few-layer phosphorene’ or ‘few-layer black phosphorus’. Tel: (310) 267-4838 During operation, these ions move back and forth between the anode and cathode through an electrolyte as part of the battery’s charge-discharge cycle. One reason for the shortfall is that the material’s structure deforms during battery operation. Towards higher energy density and fast chargingThe researchers tested the charging-cycle performance of their new electrode material by preparing sample electrodes using a method that is compatible with industrial fabrication processes. They found that their test devices had reversible capacities of 910 mA.hour/g, 790 mA.hour/g and 440 mA.hour/g after more than 2000 cycles at 2.6 A/g, 5.2 A/g and 13 A/g, respectively. “For example, anode materials with high lithium storage capacity, such as silicon, are usually reported as having low lithium-ion conductivity, which hinders fast battery [charging]. Fax: (310) 267-4918, Copyright © 2020 California NanoSystems Institute, The black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity. (Image credit: Dong Yihan, SHI Qianhui and Liang Yan), Advanced Light Microscopy and Spectroscopy (ALMS) Lab, Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines (EICN), Integrated NanoMaterials Laboraotry (INML), Molecular Screening Shared Resource (MSSR), Nano and Pico Characterization Laboratory (NPC), Nanoscience Workshop for Teachers Program. However, a series of current studies have found that there is a certain gap between the comprehensive performance indicators of black phosphorus … The new research was published in the Journal Science. Building 114 | Mail Code: 722710 This kind of structure with an excellent interfacial contact between BP and RP would be beneficial to electron Credit: DONG Yihan, SHI Qianhui and LIANG Yan A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity. Black phosphorus (black P), which is a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, was synthesized by a high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) method from white and red phosphorus. An electrode made of the new black phosphorus composite can recover about 80 percent of its power after a nine-minute charge, and 90 percent charge capacity can be maintained after charging 2,000 times, said Xin Sen, one of the paper's authors and researcher at … The black phosphorous composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion … The formation of covalent bonds with graphitic carbon restrains edge reconstruction in layered BP particles to ensure open edges for fast Li+entry; the coating To overcome the continued formation and build-up of an ionically less conductive solid-electrolyte interphase, the team applied a thin polyaniline gel coating to the electrode materials – a strategy that also reinforced the transport path for lithium ions. The researchers tested the charging-cycle performance of their new electrode material by preparing sample electrodes using a method that is compatible with industrial fabrication processes. Two-dimensional black phosphorus (2D BP) possesses huge potential in electrochemical energy storage field owing to its unique electronic structure, high charge carrier mobility, and large interlayer spacing. Here we synthesized black P by a high pressure and high temperature … It has strong luminescence and electrical conductivity that is faster than silicon. This deformation, which begins at the edges of the black phosphorus layers, reduces the material’s quality to such an extent that lithium ions cannot easily transfer through it. Recommended for you. Since the advent of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (which is known as phosphorene due to its resembling graphene sheets) in early 2014, research interest in the arena of black phosphorus was reignited in the scientific and technological communities. Black phosphorus (BP) has received wide attention due to its high theoretical capacity (2596 mAh g −1) and good electron mobility, but its cyclic stability is poor.Meanwhile, it can be complementary to carbon material, which has low theoretical capacity but good cycle stability. By way of comparison, the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge. One reason for the shortfall is that the material’s structure deforms during battery operation. Researchers from China, Taiwan and the US report developing a 2D black phosphorus composite anode that supports a high charging rate without sacrificing capacity and cycling stability. This article was originally published by Physics World. 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The website forms part of the Physics World portfolio, a collection of online, digital and print information services for the global scientific community. Lithium ions are the workhorse in many common battery applications, including electric vehicles. We report use of black phosphorus (BP) as the active anode for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. Comparison on the different preparation methods and processes, characteristics, and applications of few-layer BP is presented. Black phosphorus obtained from white phosphorus at 4 GPa and 400 °C exhibited the highest first discharge and charge capacities of 2,505 and 1,354 mAh g-1.Black phosphorus obtained from red phosphorus at 4.5 GPa and 800 °C exhibited the highest first discharge and charge capacities of 2,649 and 1,425 mAh g-1.. (Image by DONG Yihan, SHI Qianhui and LIANG Yan) Lithium ions are the workhorse in many common battery applications, including electric vehicles. By combining black phosphorous with graphite, Ji, Duan and colleagues showed that the chemical bonds between the two materials stabilize the edge structure and prevent unwanted edge changes. Aug 18, 2020. As a result, the increase in battery capacity usually leads to a long charging time, which represents a critical roadblock for more widespread adoption of EVs.”. This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical performance was far below its theoretical potential. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. To overcome the continued formation and build-up of an ionically less conductive solid-electrolyte interphase, the team applied a thin polyaniline gel coating to the electrode materials – a strategy that also reinforced the transport path for lithium ions. A battery’s performance thus depends largely on the materials used in the electrodes and electrolyte, which need to be able to store and transfer many lithium ions in a short period – all while remaining electrochemically stable – so they can be recharged hundreds of times. By way of comparison, the Tesla Model S can travel 400 miles on one charge. “A typical trade-off lies in the storage capacity and rate capability of the electrode material,” co-team leader Hengxing Ji tells Physics World. New black phosphorus anode material The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. Compared with red and white allotropes of phosphorus‚ black phosphorus is a more thermodynamically stable semiconductor material. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. Since the discovery of graphene, interest in 2D … The study revealed the electrochemical activity of pure black P under different pressures and temperatures systematically. Black phosphorus, which is a relatively rare allotrope of phosphorus, was first discovered by Bridgman in 1914. By combining black phosphorous with graphite, Ji, Duan and colleagues showed that the chemical bonds between the two materials stabilize the edge structure and prevent unwanted edge changes. The black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity. A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity. “If scalable production can be achieved, this material may provide an alternative, updated graphite anode, and move us toward a lithium-ion battery with an energy density of higher than 350 watts-hour per kilogram,” says Sen Xin, a researcher at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and one of the study’s co-first authors.This figure, he adds, means that an electric vehicle equipped with such a battery could travel 600 miles on a single charge – making it competitive with conventional combustion-engine vehicles. Constructing stable covalent bonding in black phosphorus/reduced graphene oxide for lithium ion battery anodes† Yang Shi , ‡ a Zhibin Yi , ‡ a Yanping Kuang , a Hanyu Guo , a Yingzhi Li , a Chen Liu * b and Zhouguang Lu * a Please enter the e-mail address you used to register to reset your password, Thank you for registering with Physics World Maximizing the performance of all these materials at the same time is a longstanding goal of battery research, yet in practice, improvements in one usually comes at the expense of the others. For context, an anode material that can charge at 13 A/g with a reversible capacity of 440 mA.hour/g implies that an advanced lithium-ion battery made with this technology could be charged in less than 10 minutes. Many phosphorus-carbon composite anodes like red phosphorus-carbon black , , red phosphorus-graphite , red phosphorus-carbon nanotube , red phosphorus-graphene , black phosphorus-carbon black , black phosphorus-ketjenblack , black phosphorus-graphite , are synthesized through high energy ball milling (Fig. Engineered electrode material moves battery development closer to fast charging by University of Science and Technology of China The black phosphorous composite â ¦ Black phosphorus, which is a relatively rare allotrope of phosphorus, was first discovered by Bridgman in 1914. BP and RP can construct a new single elemental heterostructure. Black phosphorus (BP) is a desirable anode material for alkali metal ion storage owing to its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity. If scaled up, the anode material developed by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and colleagues in the US might be used to manufacture batteries with an energy density of more than 350 watt-hours per kilogram – enough for a typical electric vehicle (EV) to travel 600 miles on a single charge. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. 24a). Black phosphorus is an allotrope of white phosphorus, and it is an electrode material with great potential to meet the requirements of fast charging. The black phosphorus composite material connected by carbon-phosphorus covalent bonds has a more stable structure and a higher lithium ion storage capacity. Physics World represents a key part of IOP Publishing's mission to communicate world-class research and innovation to the widest possible audience. Full details of the research are published in Science. This paper reviews the recent progress on electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D black phosphorus (BP). “If scalable production can be achieved, this material may provide an alternative, updated graphite anode, and move us toward a lithium-ion battery with an energy density of higher than 350 watts-hour per kilogram,” says Sen Xin, a researcher at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and one of the study’s co-first authors.This figure, he adds, means that an electric vehicle equipped with such a battery could travel 600 miles on a single charge – making it competitive with conventional combustion-engine vehicles. They found that their test devices had reversible capacities of 910 mA.hour/g, 790 mA.hour/g  and 440 mA.hour/g after more than 2000 cycles at 2.6 A/g, 5.2 A/g and 13 A/g, respectively. New black phosphorus anode material. New black phosphorus anode materialThe anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. Black phosphorus is the thermodynamically stable form of phosphorus at room temperature and pressure, with a heat of formation of -39.3 kJ/mol (relative to white phosphorus which is defined as the standard state). The Mechanism of Lithium/Sodium Storage. Lithium ions are the workhorse in many common battery applications, including electric vehicles. Los Angeles, CA 90095 To accomplish this, the team began binding black phosphorus with aluminum cations (Al 3+) ... Research touts lower-cost, longer-life battery. Juyun Kim, Byoungnam Park, Fabricating and Probing Additive-Free Electrophoretic-Deposited Black Phosphorus Nanoflake Anode for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications, Materials Letters, 10.1016/j.matlet.2019.07.089, (2019). A single elemental hybrid composed of black phosphorus (BP) and red phosphorus (RP) is synthesized via a feasible sonochemical method. First, the crystal structure, band structure, and optical properties of BP, as well as some currently-known passivation methods used for making BP stable in ambient conditions are briefly summarized. A new electrode material could make it possible to construct lithium-ion batteries with a high charging rate and storage capacity. This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical performance was far below its theoretical potential. The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. During operation, these ions move back and forth between the anode and cathode through an electrolyte as part of the battery’s charge-discharge cycle. Layered black phosphorus (BP) exhibits several attractive features for high-rate, high-capacity Li storage. A battery’s performance thus depends largely on the materials used in the electrodes and electrolyte, which need to be able to store and transfer many lithium ions in a short period – all while remaining electrochemically stable – so they can be recharged hundreds of times. As a result, the increase in battery capacity usually leads to a long charging time, which represents a critical roadblock for more widespread adoption of EVs.”. A Black Phosphorus-Graphite Composite Anode for Li-/Na-/K-Ion Batteries Black phosphorus (BP) is a desirable anode material for alkali metal ion storage owing to its high electronic/ionic conductivity and theoretical capacity. This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical … The anode in most lithium-ion batteries is made of graphite. Maximizing the performance of all these materials at the same time is a longstanding goal of battery research, yet in practice, improvements in one usually comes at the expense of the others. It was first synthesized by heating white phosphorus under high pressures (12,000 atmospheres) in 1914. For context, an anode material that can charge at 13 A/g with a reversible capacity of 440 mA.hour/g implies that an advanced lithium-ion battery made with this technology could be charged in less than 10 minutes. However, its practical application is hindered by large volume change of BP and poor mechanical stability of BP anodes by traditional slurry casting technology. If you'd like to change your details at any time, please visit My account. “For example, anode materials with high lithium storage capacity, such as silicon, are usually reported as having low lithium-ion conductivity, which hinders fast battery [charging]. Abstract and Figures Two-dimensional black phosphorus (2D BP), an emerging material, has aroused tremendous interest once discovered. Red phosphorus and black phosphorus anodes have very similar lithiation/sodiation reaction mechanism, both of which can form Li 3 P/Na 3 P in a fully discharged state, thus having a high theoretical specific capacity of 2596 mAh/g [59,60,61].Unlike lithiation in red phosphorus, which only involves a one-step synthesis reaction, black phosphorus … This 2D layered material had been considered before as a candidate for anodes, but tests showed that its electrochemical performance was far below its theoretical potential. On its own, black phosphorus isn't a great material for batteries, but a Chinese-US team has figured out how to manipulate it so it works much better. Researchers led by Ji at USTC and Xiangfeng Duan at the University of California, Los Angeles, made their new anode material by combining graphite with black phosphorus. 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