The Battle of Dogger Bank (1781), 5 August 1781, during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War between a British squadron under Hyde Parker and a Dutch squadron under Johan Zoutman The Dogger Bank incident (1904), 21 October 1904, during the Russo-Japanese War, when Russian sailors wrongly opened fire on British fishing boats [4] "Damage to the Aurora was concealed...and only discovered by the deciphering of a wireless message intercepted at [the British] Felixstowe station. Lat., 5 25' E. Long and sank at 13:13, with the loss of 792 crew. The result was a British victory, and the German navy delayed further significant action against the British fleet for more than a year. At first, the inexperience of the cryptanalysts in naval matters led to errors in the understanding of the material and this lack of naval experience caused Oliver to make personal decisions about the information to be passed to other departments, many of which, particularly the Operations Department, had reservations about the value of Room 40. [12] The fleet then proceeded to the Sea of Japan where it was soundly defeated in the Battle of Tsushima. This fire spread rapidly through other compartments, igniting ready propellant charges all the way to the magazines and knocked out both rear turrets with the loss of 165 men. On 30 December, the commander of the Home Fleet, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, gave orders that when in contact with German ships, officers were to treat orders from those ignorant of local conditions as instructions only but he refused Admiralty suggestions to loosen ship formations, for fear of decentralising tactical command too far. Beatty tried to correct this obvious misunderstanding by using the order from Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar "Engage the enemy more closely" but this order was not in the signal book and Beatty chose "Keep nearer to the enemy" as the closest equivalent. Dogger Bank C and Sofia joint application for planning permission to Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council – 10 September 2020. [30] By this time, the rest of the German ships were too far away for the British to catch up. Battle of Dogger Bank (1781), during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, a Royal Navy squadron fought a Dutch squadron on 5 August 1781. The disaster of 21 October began in the evening, when the captain of the supply ship Kamchatka (Камчатка), which was last in the Russian line, took a passing Swedish ship for a Japanese torpedo boat and radioed that he was being attacked. On 19 January, Beatty had reconnoitred the area west of the German Bight and been seen by a German aircraft. [25], With his ships running short of ammunition, Hipper chose to steam for home, leaving the disabled Blücher behind, to save his remaining ships. [10], After navigating a non-existent minefield, the Russian fleet sailed into the North Sea. Following a number of defeats in the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan … In the aftermath some British newspapers called the Russian fleet 'pirates' and Admiral Rozhestvensky was heavily criticised for not leaving the British sailors lifeboats. During the Russo-Japanese War, Russian naval ships opened fire on British fishing boats in the Dogger Bank incident on 21 October 1904, mistaking them for Japanese torpedo boats. Room 40 gained a copy of the Verkehrsbuch (VB) codebook, normally used by Flag officers of the Kaiserliche Marine. [38] (In 1920, Scheer wrote that the number of British ships present suggested that they had known about the operation in advance, but that this was put down to circumstances, although "other reasons" could not be excluded. Hipper opened fire at 08:00 on 16 December 1914, eventually killing 108 and wounding 525 civilians. On Lion, two men had been killed and eleven wounded, most by a shell hit in the A turret lobby. The British had intercepted and decoded German wireless transmissions, gaining advance knowledge that a German raiding squadron was heading for Dogger Bank and ships of the Grand Fleet sailed to intercept the raiders. [10] After twenty minutes' firing the fishermen saw a blue light signal on one of the warships, the order to cease firing.[11]. [16] The report produced by the International Commission concluded that: "the commissioners declare that their findings, which are therein formulated, are not, in their opinion, of a nature to cast any discredit upon the military qualities or the humanity of Admiral Rojdestvensky, or of the personnel of his squadron". The memorial, approximately 18 feet high, shows the dead fisherman George Henry Smith and carries the following inscription: Erected by public subscription to the memory of George Henry Smith (skipper) and William Richard Legget (third hand), of the steam-trawler CRANE, who lost their lives through the action of the Russian Baltic Fleet in the North Sea, 22 October 1904, and Walter Whelpton, skipper of the trawler MINO, who died through shock, May 1905. Following a number of defeats in the South China Sea and the Sea of Japan Russia decided to reinforce its navy by sending a large number of warships from Russia’s Baltic Fleet – including some of their newest and most powerful battleships under the command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky – t… The 'Battle' of Dogger Bank Borodino Having survived attacks from phantom Japanese torpedo boats and submarines and having negotiated a non-existent minefield, the squadron sailed into the North Sea where the Russians spotted the Hull trawler fleet fishing on the Dogger Bank. The 'Battle' of Dogger Bank Having survived attacks from phantom Japanese torpedo boats and submarines and having negotiated a non-existent minefield, the squadron sailed into the North Sea where the Russians spotted the Hull trawler fleet fishing on the Dogger Bank. The Dogger Bank incident (also known as the North Sea Incident, the Russian Outrage or the Incident of Hull) occurred on the night of 21/22 October 1904, when the Russian Baltic Fleet mistook some British trawlers in the Dogger Bank area of the North Sea for an Imperial Japanese Navy force and fired on them. [8][9] The Germans had made the first successful attack on Britain since the 17th century and suffered no losses but Ingenohl was unjustly blamed for missing an opportunity to inflict a defeat on the Royal Navy, despite him creating the chance by his offensive-mindedness.[10]. [10], Due to concerns that the draught of the newer battleships (which had proven to be considerably greater than designed)[12] would prevent their passage through the Suez Canal, the fleet separated after leaving Tangiers on 3 November 1904. Ingenohl was sacked and replaced by Admiral Hugo von Pohl. A slightly more aggressive strategy was permitted, within the policy of keeping the HSF in being, in which the fleet could sortie to attempt to isolate and destroy advanced British forces or to attack the Grand Fleet if in greater strength. The Russian warships involved in the incident were en route to the Far East, to reinforce the 1st Pacific Squadron stationed at Port Arthur, and later Vladivostok, during the Russo-Japanese War. No damage was done but the British ships put on speed and withdrew to avoid further aerial attack, leaving some of the survivors behind. [15] The battlecruisers comprised the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (Beatty) with Lion (flagship), Tiger and Princess Royal. [40], The battle, although inconclusive, boosted British morale. [12], Hipper intended to clear the bank of British fishing vessels and dubious neutrals and to attack any small British warships in the area, with the HSF covering the withdrawal of the battlecruisers. [3] The German-Australian steamer Hobart was seized near Melbourne, Australia on 11 August and the Handelsverkehrsbuch (HVB) codebook, used by the German navy to communicate with merchant ships and within the High Seas Fleet, was captured. Dogger Bank was a British victory, but it was one that glossed over many problems, such as poor gunnery, dangerous ammunition handling procedures and signalling errors. Tiger's fire was ineffective, as she mistook the shell splashes from Lion for her own, when the fall of shot was 3,000 yd (1.7 mi; 2.7 km) beyond Seydlitz. [15] The International Commission met in Paris from 9 January to 25 February 1905. As the trawlers had their nets down, they were unable to flee and, in the general chaos, Russian ships shot at each other: the cruisers Aurora and Dmitrii Donskoi were taken for Japanese warships and bombarded by seven battleships sailing in formation, damaging both ships and killing a chaplain and at least one sailor and severely wounding another. With Lion′s electric generators out of action, Beatty could only signal using flag hoists and both signals were flown at the same time. How much extra damage would have needed to be caused to make this happen? Seydlitz lost 159 men killed and 33 wounded and Kolberg lost three men killed and two wounded. It was fought near Dogger Bank in the North Sea on January 24, 1915. Signals between ships continued to be by flag but there was no revision of the signal book or the assumptions of its authors. Rear-Admiral Moore was quietly replaced and sent to the Canary Islands and Captain Henry Pelly of Tiger was blamed for not taking over when Lion was damaged. Some intercepts decoded during the action had taken two hours to reach British commanders at sea, by when they were out of date or misleading. Russia voluntarily paid a compensation of £66,000 to the fishermen. News of the sailing of the HSF was delivered so late that the British commanders thought that the Germans were on the way, when they were returning. The Admiralty also uncovered the German order of battle and tracked the deployment of ships, which gave them an offensive advantage. [32], Lion and Indomitable slowed to 7 kn (8.1 mph; 13 km/h) overnight when Lion had more engine-trouble and at dawn were still 100 nmi (120 mi; 190 km) short of the Firth of Forth. During a stern chase lasting several hours, the British caught up with the Germans and engaged them with long-range gunfire. It was known that enemy intelligence had been heavily active in the region. [5], The Director of the Intelligence Division of the Admiralty, Rear-Admiral Henry Oliver, established a code breaking organisation to decipher German signals, using cryptographers from academic backgrounds and making use of the windfalls taken from the German ships. What would have been the result politically as well as militarily if the UK had taken action against the Russian Fleet over the sinking of the British fishing vessels. The editorial of the morning's Times was particularly scathing: The British trawler Crane was sunk, and its captain and first mate were killed. … 1 On the night of 21 to 22 October 1904, the Russian Baltic Sea Fleet, while on its way to the Far East for deployment in the Russo-Japanese War, encountered some 30 British trawlers fishing in the North Sea off Hull in the area of the Dogger Bank (Russia; Baltic Sea; Warships; Fishing Boats). At 11:02, realising that so sharp a turn would open the range too much, Beatty ordered "Course NE" to limit the turn to 45° and then added "Engage the enemy's rear", to clarify his intent that the other ships, which had now left Lion far behind, should pursue the main German force. Dogger Bank 1904 Dogger Bank 1904. Two of the most efficient and powerful British squadrons...knowing approximately what to expect...had failed to bring to action an enemy who was acting in close conformity with our appreciation and with whose advanced screen contact had been established. [9], Similar accidents and rumours affected the Russian fleet: there was a general fear of attack, with widespread rumours that a fleet of Japanese torpedo boats were stationed off the Danish coast, talk of the Japanese having mined the seas, and alleged sightings of Japanese submarines. [4] During the Battle off Texel (17 October), the commander of the German destroyer SMS S119 threw overboard his secret papers in a lead lined chest as the ship sank but on 30 November, a British trawler dragged up the chest. As it crept home, the ship suffered further engine-trouble from saltwater contamination in the boiler-feed-water system and its speed dropped to 8 kn (9.2 mph; 15 km/h). The Admiral took the report seriously and quickened his coaling and commenced sailing. Beatty's flag lieutenant Ralph Seymour—responsible for hoisting Beatty's two commands on one flag hoist, allowing them to be read as one—remained. PMN1. Dogger Bank fishing boats were famously attacked by the Russian Baltic Fleet in October 1904, and when the First World War broke out a decade later, they continued to trawl for fish, with British, German and neutral boats continuing to ply the waters. Dogger Bank Incident AHC: Make Russo-Japanese War into Great War Britain joins Russo-Japanese War WI: Dogger Bank Sparks a War Russian Empire vs British Empire, early 1900s. On October 21, 1904, the Russian battle fleet, proceeding from their Baltic Sea ports via the North Sea to the Far East for service in the Russo-Japanese War, mistook a British fishing fleet on the Dogger Bank for Japanese torpedo boats and opened fire, killing two men, wounding half a dozen, and sinking a trawler. For the naval battles, see, The dogger bank incident in 1904 – The Russian fleet attacks Hull trawlers, "Battle of Tsushima | Russo-Japanese war", Details and History of some of the Trawlers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dogger_Bank_incident&oldid=994913555, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 05:26. The worst British failure was in the exploitation of the intelligence provided by the code breakers at Room 40 (Sir Alfred Ewing), that had given the British notice of the raid. The lack of a proper war staff at the Admiralty and poor liaison between Room 40, Oliver and the operations staff meant that the advantage was poorly exploited in 1915; it was not until 1917 that this was remedied. The newer battleships and a few cruisers proceeded around the Cape of Good Hope under command of Admiral Rozhestvensky while the older battleships and lighter cruisers made their way through the Suez Canal under the command of Admiral von Felkerzam. German messages could be passed only by wireless, using cyphers to disguise their content. The Germans learned lessons and the British did not. Dogger Bank (Dutch: Doggersbank, ... a Royal Navy squadron fought a Dutch squadron on 5 August 1781 in the Battle of Dogger Bank. The Kamchatka eventually rejoined the fleet and claimed that she had engaged three Japanese warships and fired over 300 shells: the ships she had actually fired at were a Swedish merchantman, a German trawler, and a French schooner. The destroyers reformed into an anti-submarine screen and the ships reached the firth at midnight; the destroyer Meteor was towed into the Humber Estuary. The British had let the raid occur and appeared to the public to have been surprised (having been forewarned by decoded wireless messages) and then to have failed to sink the German raiding force on its way back to Germany. [16] No warships had engaged at such long ranges or at such high speeds before and accurate gunnery for both sides was an unprecedented challenge but after a few salvos, British shells straddled Blücher. The incident led to a serious diplomatic conflict between Russia and Britain, which was particularly dangerous due to the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. After the British victory, both navies replaced officers who were thought to have shown poor judgement and made changes to equipment and procedures because of failings observed during the battle. In the First World War, the area saw battles in 1915 and … [37] The Germans thought that the appearance of the British squadron at dawn was too remarkable to be coincidence and concluded that a spy near their base in Jade Bay was responsible, not that the British were reading their encrypted wireless communications. Had Moore's three fast battlecruisers pursued Hipper's remaining three (leaving the slower Indomitable behind as Beatty intended), the British might have been at a disadvantage and been defeated. The Dogger Bank Incident - When The Russian Baltic Fleet Mistook British Fishing Boats For Japanese Warships, 1904. At sea, Beatty had sent ambiguous signals and some commanders had not used their initiative. [33] Lion was out of action for four months, Fisher having decreed that the damage be repaired at Armstrong's on the Tyne, without her going into dry dock, making for an extremely difficult and time-consuming job. The battlecruisers failed to improve fire distribution and similar targeting errors were made at Jutland. I never understood why russian commander/s thought there were japanese warships in the Dogger Bank area, far away from … [27], The combination of the signal "Course NE"—which happened to be the direction of Blücher—and the signal to engage the rear was misunderstood by Beatty's second-in-command, Rear-Admiral Moore on New Zealand, as an order for all the battlecruisers to finish off Blücher. [35][36], At first the Germans thought that Tiger had been sunk, because of a large fire that had been seen on her decks, but it was soon clear that the battle was a serious German reverse. Military History: Apr 19, 2015 "[5] The incident almost led to war between the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire. The British had intercepted and decoded German wireless transmissions, gaining advance knowledge that a German raiding squadron was heading for Dogger Bank and ships of the Grand Fleet sailed to intercept the raiders. The British surprised the smaller and slower German squadron, which fled for home. ID: EC7PR4 (RM) [6], The Russian warships involved in the incident were en route to the Far East, to reinforce the 1st Pacific Squadron stationed at Port Arthur, and later Vladivostok, during the Russo-Japanese War. Captain Henry Pelly of the new battlecruiser Tiger assumed that two ships should concentrate on the leading German ship and engaged Seydlitz, leaving Moltke free to fire at Lion. 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