Twig blight caused by the fungus Phomopsis can be a serious problem on well-established azalea plants. Well-drained, organic soils with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 are best suited for azaleas. Improper pruning can increase your risk of cankers. Sometimes there are environmental factors that are associated with azalea problems. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! White, cottony growths on leaf surfaces indicate the presence of this disease, which is usually controlled by using fungicides labeled for azaleas. New growth is especially susceptible in early spring. Lacebugs feed by sucking chlorophyll from the leaves of many plants. Bark and branches fall prey to this disease after fungi enter through natural openings or wounds. These branches should be removed and destroyed. Feeding in groups, azalea caterpillars can quickly defoliate shrubs. This is a fungus that causes root death and damage to the bark tissue at the base of the trunk. When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. The adults are 1/8" long, flattened, and dark brown or black. However, azaleas are susceptible to a variety of fungal diseases including leaf spot and rust. These insects may be seen on the lower surface of a leaf. Whiteflies – These pests usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves, which turn yellow or die. Galls, which are caused by the pathogen Exobasidium vaccinii, cause leaves to be malformed and sometimes leave telltale white or pink spores. On new growth and in heavy infestations, the scales may be distributed more uniformly on the branch (Figs. The foliage on infected twigs wilts and dies, and the wood underneath the bark turns reddish-brown. The azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azaleas, is a prominent pest of rhododendron, azalea, and huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.). As alien-looking and repulsive as azalea leaf galls are, they are not considered overly serious. Diseased leaves may drop prematurely. Botrytis blight, which is caused by the pathogen Botrytis cinerea, causes spotting or discoloration on flowers, rotten buds or buds that do not open. Insufficient watering is the primary contributor to plant stress that encourages this disease. Affected leaves may also curl up and drop. Causal pathogens are Pythium and Phytophthora species fungi, which grow in the presence of poorly draining soils and overwatering. Canker Diseases: Canker Diseases are caused by fungi that commonly enter the tree through wounds in the bark or branch stubs. Azalea Lace Bugs – These are one of the most common threats to azalea shrubs. No. Affected plants may have yellow to whitish-looking foliage with black bugs located in numbers on the underside of leaves. Petal Blight – This fungus only affects flowers and appears as pale or whitish spots on colored petals or rust-colored spots on white petals. Eriococcus azaleae Discovered in 1881, the azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azaleas, is a prominent pest of rhododendron, azalea, and huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.). * Reprinted by permission from Compendium of Rhododendron and Azalea Diseases, second edition, ISBN 0-89054-436-0 , published by the American Phytopathological Society. A wilted plant is usually the first sign of trouble. Treatment with horticultural oil … While there is currently nothing available to control nematodes on azaleas, with proper fertility and watering practices, the plants are better able to tolerate attacks. At certain times of the year, particularly during the summer months, you are bound to notice a plant or two in your landscape that has a black fungus growing on the leaves. In humid climates or during periods of frequent rainfall, you can apply preventive fungicides such as Chlorothalonil to prevent fungi from forming. Fungi on azaleas can sometimes be sidestepped by applying preventive fungicides. Some fungicides, such as triforine, may prevent diseases if you apply them before buds break. It has been reported in the Eastern US, as well as Belgium and Russia. They generally don't harm the plant they grow on, since they make their own food from sunlight, water and air. Signs of Azalea Dieback. Blackened branches, covered by a sticky soot and white, cottony fluffs in the crotches of the lower branches are all symptoms of one of the most dreaded of azalea diseases. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. This fungus is a water mold, and thrives in poorly drained or wet conditions. May require fungicide spray. Be sure to clean your tools well. Fungus or disease? This is a pest that generally does not kill hosts, rather it causes aesthetic damage. Various scales attack azaleas and rhododendrons, but one of the most common is azalea bark scale (Eriococcus azaleae). Since lichens are almost always found on weak plants, do lichens cause the plants to become sick? Informational table showing disease name, symptoms, pathogen/cause, and management of Azalea and Rhododendron diseases. Applying a methyl bromide soil drench may manage water molds, but once above-ground symptoms appear, such as yellowing and dropped leaves, chemicals are usually ineffective. Ask the Expert: what would get the white fungus off azaleas , leaf the azalea has white on them , on the leafs is it a fungus , what can spray on them will mild soapy water work. The most common azalea diseases affecting these shrubs include: Azalea Gall – This azalea disease commonly occurs in early spring on new leaf growth. Crown rot causes the lower portions of the stem to … More » Azalea. Treatment with horticultural oil can help. Plants may exhibit discoloration with fewer or undersized foliage and flowers. Leaf scorch, which is caused from too much sun, may appear as yellow or brown spots on foliage. While these attractive plants are generally hardy and problem free, they are occasionally bothered by pests and diseases. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Infested azaleas usually appear chlorotic, and severe infestation of azalea bark scale can weaken or kill your azaleas. Thousands Canker Disease: Originally confined to the western parts of the United States, Thousands Canker Diseases, made it to Fairfax County in 2012. hmbs53 Melrose, FL May 29, 2008. While not specifically designed for disease maintenance, there are many instances where to application of a growth regulator has had a positive impact on the severity of symptom expression of certain diseases. Too much or too little light can also damage these plants. Drought can cause similar symptoms. Removal of affected plants may be necessary. Azalea bark scale. Azalea Bark Scale (Eriococcus azaleae) Bark scales are a type of soft scale and an infestation is indicated by clear sticky honeydew with attendant sooty mold (black fungus) on leaves or stems, yellowing of leaves, and twig dieback. Anthracnose – Leafspot and Dieback (fungus – Glomerella cingulata): Symptoms on leaves are characterized by numerous small, round spots on both leaf surfaces. The adult female azalea bark scale is dark red with a long sucking mouthpart. To prevent frost damage, do not grow tender species in cold climates, and cover shrubs with sheets or burlap anytime frost is expected. Nutrient deficiencies are another common factor with azaleas. These branches should be removed and destroyed. It is spread mostly by winds. Bot canker, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea, attacks woody parts of azaleas. Infested stems and leaves under infested stems may also turn black from the black, sooty mold fungus that grows on the sugary liquid waste excreted by the scale insects. Affected shrubs may be covered with sooty mold or appear as white, cottony masses within the forks of branches. As a tradeoff for this striking display, azaleas must contend with a variety of fungal diseases that threaten their health and mar their beautiful blossoms. These spots quickly enlarge, becoming soft and watery. What to Do About Azalea Leaf Galls . This shows spots on the branches of my azalea's. Azalea Leafminers – This azalea plant pest generally “mines” between the upper and lower surfaces of leaves causing brown blisters or yellowing on the leaves. Azaleas are one of the most popular spring-flowering shrubs seen in landscapes. Twig Blight – Twig blight may cause wilting and defoliation on one or more branches with a reddish-brown discoloration under the bark. Nitrogen and iron are the most commonly seen deficiencies in azaleas. Azalea bark scales cause yellowing and a soot or mold appearance on stems. Azaleas like moist soil, but they cannot tolerate waterlogged roots. Azalea Bark Scale, Eriococcus azaleas, was discovered in 1881 and is a major yearly pest for Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and Huckleberries. They vary in appearance depending on age, sex, and species. This scale is most obvious from May through June when white egg sacs may be found in twig forks. Eventually twigs may die back. More » Disease Reduction. On average, established azaleas require an inch of rainfall or irrigation per week during their active growing season. Powdery mildew more commonly attacks susceptible cultivars, such as “Hinodegiri,” and some deciduous azaleas. Death of branches with split bark may not occur until weeks or months after the injury. She is also a former mortgage acquisition specialist for Freddie Mac in Atlanta, GA. How to Cure Hydrangea Anthracnose Disease, Mississippi State University Extension Service: Azaleas for the Landscape, Penn State Extension: Azalea and Rhododendron Diseases, North Carolina State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences: Azalea Diseases in the Landscape, University of California IPM Online: Flower Blight -- Ovulinia azaleae, University of California IPM Online: Azalea (Rhododendron spp. herald spring with a profusion of flowers in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. Insecticidal soap is usually effective in controlling lace bugs in late spring or fall. Dark, sunken areas form around the openings and may spread laterally along stems. The spots are light to rusty-brown with a definite margin. Prune and dispose of infected leaves and shoots immediately. It has been reported in the Eastern US, as well as Belgium and Russia. The disease is worse after plants have been stressed by extreme drought or heat. Both floral diseases are spread by splashing water that catapults fungal spores onto plants. It is one of the only scales known to infest crape myrtles. And is it tied to the Spanish moss at all? Loosening soil thoroughly on site and not planting azaleas deeper than they were in nursery pots are important for good drainage. Rhododendron leaves will curl inward and droop. They live together symbiotically. Quote. After studying botany and microbiology at Clemson University, Blackstone was hired as a University of Georgia Master Gardener Coordinator. Control with pruning and disposal of diseased branches, making cuts a few inches below discoloration. Wood discoloration when peeling back bark of an infected stem. Remove old mulch and replace with new in early spring. Rust – Rust is a fungal disease that causes reddish to orange spore masses on infected leaves, as well as galls or cankers on bark, which may occasionally kill the entire plant. Affected shrubs may be covered with sooty mold or appear as white, cottony masses within the forks of branches. Cutting back infected branches to healthy wood may halt the spread of this disease, but you must also remove any dropped plant material below plants to prevent reinfection from fungal spores that remain on leaves and twigs. Bot canker, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea, attacks woody parts of azaleas. Azalea Caterpillars – These alzalea pests are reddish to brownish black with white and yellow stripes. Lichens are composed of a fungus and an alga living together cooperatively. Fungal blight diseases infect azalea flowers and are particularly problematic if you use overhead irrigation. 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To treat, eliminate the insects and prune any dead or dying parts of the plant. Powdery Mildew – This azalea disease appears as white powdery growth on the leaves and occurs most often during fall. Stunt Nematode – These azalea pests attack the feeder roots and cause azalea plants to become stunted and yellow. Black branches are the result of mold growing on the honeydew excreted by this azalea pest. Rapid thawing of frozen twigs and branches may result in bark splitting. Drench soil area under plants with Terraclor in January. Dying leaves and stems. The azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azaleae Comstock, can be found on a variety of hosts grown in nurseries and landscapes including azalea, rhododendron, andromeda, hawthorn, poplar, willow, and most recently, it has been found infesting blueberries in the Pacific northwest. ), Clemson Cooperative Extension: Azalea & Rhododendron Diseases. Planting azaleas in a soil/bark mixture provides for good drainage and fungicides like Terrazole and Truban can be used to protect your azalea from phytophthora. The leaves become curled, fleshy, and pale green to white. Bt products are also effective. Life History – As the female azalea bark scale matures, it secretes white, waxy threads, which become felted or matted into a thick covering over its entire body. 4 through 6). Victoria Lee Blackstone is a horticulturist and a professional writer who has authored research-based scientific/technical papers, horticultural articles, and magazine and newspaper articles. Prune below the discoloration and discard the infectious stems. Post #4695266. Pick off the leaves where the azalea leaf galls occur and dispose of them properly. For instance, frost damage can cause all parts of the shrub to wilt, turn brown or black, and die. Some of the more common azalea plant pests include the following: Azalea Bark Scale – This azalea plant pest occurs most often in the eastern United States. Azalea bark scale looks like, and is often mistaken for mealybugs. Inappropriate watering can cause foliage to wilt, discolor, and drop. If so, you have a fungus called powdery mildew. Fungicides are used t… Under severe conditions, the spots may coalesce and form large irregular spots. https://www.giroudtree.com Azalea Bark Scale can destroy beautiful Azalea shrubs. Infected plant material should be removed and destroyed. Plants with heavy infestations eventually die. They are caused by the fungus, Exobasidium vaccinii. Rhododendron spp. caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Honeydew can … When the upper surface of rhododendrons or azalea leaves have a graying mottled appearance, there is probably a heavy infestation of lacebugs, Stephanitis sp. Treating Azalea Dieback. Apply a fungicide to buds as they begin to turn color. The white cotton-looking insects show up in limb and twig crotches. Leaf spots and galls are foliar diseases that thrive in wet or humid conditions. Many people enjoy the color and patterns lichens create. Janet Flower Shop Network Plant Expert Reply: First we need to determine if you really have a fungus. Mildew, galls and leaf spots affect azalea foliage. Is the white substance powdery and can you wipe it off. ... Lichens can also live on the bark of perfectly healthy branches, but there, it usually stays put. Azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) Cloudy, overcast weather conditions cause favorable conditions for the disease to occur. A:That crusty growth might look like a fungus or mold, but it’s actually a bug called azalea bark scale. If your shrubs have tight growth, pruning out limbs to open plants increases air circulation. When cared for properly, the landscape plants liven up the garden for many years. Prevention of root and crown rots is the best management for these diseases, starting with planting azaleas. This disease causes rhododendron and azaleas to first have white powder-like spots on young leaves, which can spread to the entire upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. First of all, take solace in the fact that their bark is worse than their bite. Fungal leaf spot diseases can be caused by various pathogens, including Cercospora and Septoria species, and pepper leaves with unattractive stippling. Roots of affected plants appear soggy or blackened, and the outer portion of the root easily pulls away from the inner portion. Bookmark. University of California IPM Online: Azalea -- Rhododendron Spp. Affected leaves eventually turn brown and should be removed and destroyed. Although the pest usually does not kill the host tree, it causes aesthetic damage, weakens the tree, and can cause honeydew and sooty mold to develop. The bushes are often covered with sooty mold, a black fungus that grows in the honeydew excreted by the azalea bark scales as they feed. Interestingly, a lichen is a “sandwich” made of algae in the center and fungus on the outside. Up close, CMBS is white t… Scales are unusual insects. This is a pest that generally does not kill hosts, rather it … However, like other azaleas and rhododendrons, Encore azaleas may develop leaf infections caused by a variety of fungal pathogens, including azalea bark … Spray with Thylate or Benomyl when blooms begin to open. Petal blight is caused by an airborne fungus which over-winters on the spent flowers. Informational table showing disease name, symptoms, pathogen/cause, and management of Azalea and Rhododendron diseases. related pages> Azalea Problems (parent page) Antonelli Close-up of azalea bark scale egg masses. Also known as Botryosphaeria dothidea, or Phomopsis, and often starts with fungus infecting one branch. Sign up for our newsletter. Root and crown rots, which are also called water molds, attack azaleas at their base and can often kill plants. Close-up of Azalea bark scale egg masses on infested branches blackened by sooty mold. Often the leaves are covered with a black fungus (sooty mold), which thrives on the honeydew or sugary substance excreted as the scale insects feed. Control is often accomplished through handpicking, as they pose no threat to humans. The algae makes food from sunlight and air; the fungus protects the algae and supplies moisture. As cankers girdle twigs or branches, they cut off nutrient transport and woody parts die. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. The fungus Phytophthora species causes one of the most common disease problems in the landscape for rhododendron and azalea. Whiteflies do not respond well to treatment; however, neem oil may reduce populations. 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